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Pay attention to the hazards of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium before fertilization in agriculture!

by:BOQU     2023-03-20
For a long time, in the concept of some growers, the more fertilizers are spread, the faster the crops will grow and the better the harvest will be. In fact, it is not the case, and sometimes it often backfires. Excessive use of chemical fertilizers can also cause many harms. Today we will analyze in detail the effect of a large amount of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium fertilizers and what harm will be caused by excessive use. Nitrogen fertilizer Nitrogen fertilizer is the type of chemical fertilizer that requires the most in agricultural production, and it plays an important role in increasing crop yield and improving the quality of agricultural products. It is a component of amino acids in plants, a component of protein, and a component of chlorophyll that plays a decisive role in photosynthesis in plants. Nitrogen also helps crops disperse. The application of nitrogen fertilizer can not only increase the yield of agricultural products, but also improve the quality of agricultural products. Plants of crops with nitrogen deficiency symptoms are short and thin; the leaves are abnormal green such as yellow-green, yellow-orange, etc. In severe cases, the lower old leaves are almost yellow, or even dry and dead; the root system has few branches; the tillers of cereal crops are significantly reduced, or even not Tillers, poorly differentiated young spikes, few branches, small spikes, premature senescence and maturity of crops, and reduced yield. Excessive hazards A large supply of nitrogen often makes the cells grow too large, the cell walls are thin, the cells are juicy, the plants are soft, and they are vulnerable to mechanical damage and pathogens. In addition, too much nitrogen will consume a lot of carbohydrates, which will affect the quality of crop products. It is mainly manifested in crops that are greedy for greenery and late maturity, and the growth period is prolonged. The cell walls are thin and the plants are soft and susceptible to mechanical damage (lodging) and disease (eg brown rust of barley, head blight of wheat, brown spot of rice). Extensive application of nitrogen fertilizer will reduce the quality and storability of fruits and vegetables. Phosphate fertilizer Phosphate fertilizer can not only increase the yield of crops, but also improve the quality of crops. It can accelerate the growth of cereal crops, promote large and full grains, promote the flowering and fruiting of vegetables, melons and other fruit trees, and increase the fruiting rate; increase the sugar content of fruits and sugar cane, and increase the oil content of rapeseed. Phosphorus is an important component of the plant nucleus. It plays an important role in cell division and the differentiation and development of various plant organs and tissues, especially flowering and fruiting. It is an indispensable element for physiological metabolic activities in plants. Phosphorus in plants is mainly concentrated in the seeds of plants, and more phosphorus is stored in the seeds, which is conducive to the healthy growth of seedlings in the early stage. Phosphorus also has a good effect on improving plant drug resistance, cold resistance and drought resistance. Phosphorus also has the effect of promoting root development, especially promoting the development of lateral roots and fine roots. Phosphorus deficiency symptoms When crops are deficient in phosphorus, the plants grow slowly, are short and thin, erect, have few branches, small leaves are easy to fall off, and the color is ordinary, dark green or gray green, and the leaf margins and petioles often appear purple. Poor root development, delayed maturation, reduced yield and quality. Symptoms of phosphorus deficiency generally start from the old leaves at the base of the stem and gradually develop upwards. Excessive harm of phosphorus fertilizer Excessive phosphorus nutrition will cause crops to absorb too much phosphorus nutrition from the soil. Excessive phosphorus nutrition will make the respiration of crops too vigorous, and the dry matter consumed is greater than the accumulated dry matter, causing reproductive organs to develop ahead of time, causing crop damage. Premature maturity, small kernels, low yield. Excessive application of phosphorus fertilizer in zinc-deficient soil will cause zinc in the soil to interact with excess phosphorus to produce zinc phosphate precipitation, which cannot be absorbed by crops, causing obvious zinc deficiency symptoms in crops. Excessive application of phosphorus fertilizer will also cause deterioration of soil physical and chemical properties. The application of potassium fertilizer can promote photosynthesis of crops, promote crop results and improve crop cold resistance and disease resistance, thereby increasing agricultural output. Potassium exists in the form of free potassium ions in plants, which can promote the metabolism of carbohydrates and nitrogen; control and regulate the activity of various mineral nutrients; activate the activities of various enzymes; control the transport of nutrients and water; maintain the vitality of cells Internal pressure, thus preventing the plants from wilting. Symptoms of Potassium Deficiency Potassium deficiency in crops usually causes old leaves and leaves to turn green and yellow, and then turn brown, scorched like burning. Brown spots or patches appear on the leaves, but the middle of the leaf, the veins and the proximal veins are still green. With the aggravation of potassium deficiency, the whole leaves turn reddish brown or dry, necrotic and fall off. The root system is short and small, prone to premature aging, and rots in severe cases. Cereal crops show reduced tillering power, soft stems, and easy lodging; dicotyledonous plants have curled and gradually shrunk leaves, sometimes with incomplete leaves, but the middle part of the leaves is still green; root crops have reduced quality, light weight, and poor quality; ripe fruit The degree of inconsistency, the woody pulp increases, the taste is sour and bitter, and it is not delicious. Excessive Potassium Excessive Potassium application will not only waste precious resources, but also reduce the absorption of calcium, magnesium and other cations by crops, resulting in 'heart rot' in leafy vegetables and 'bitter pit' in apples. Cause soil environmental pollution, and water pollution; Excessive application of potassium fertilizer will also weaken crop production capacity.
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