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Basic methods and principles of sewage treatment

by:BOQU     2023-03-23
The principle of sewage and wastewater treatment is to separate or decompose various pollutants contained in sewage and wastewater from water, such as: COD, ammonia nitrogen, total phosphorus, total nitrogen and other conventional pollution items. In order to understand the concept of sewage and wastewater treatment methods, it is necessary to understand in what form pollutants exist in water and their physical and chemical characteristics. Generally, pollutants can be divided into three forms: suspended matter; colloidal matter; dissolved matter. But it is very difficult to strictly divide, and it is divided according to the size of the particle size of the pollutants. The particle size of suspended solids is 1~100m, the particle size of colloid is 1nm~1um, and the particle size of dissolved substances is less than 1nm. During the treatment of sewage and wastewater, the difference in particle size of pollutants has a great influence on the difficulty of treatment. Generally speaking, suspended solids that are easy to handle, while colloids and dissolved substances with smaller particle sizes are more difficult to handle. That is to say, suspended solids are easily separated from water by sedimentation and filtration, while colloidal substances and soluble substances must be coagulated with special substances or increased to the extent of suspended solids through chemical reactions. The membrane is adsorbed, filtered and separated from water. The basic method of sewage and wastewater treatment is to use various technical means to separate, remove and recycle the pollutants contained in sewage and wastewater, or convert them into harmless substances to purify the water. Modern wastewater treatment technologies can be divided into three categories: physical treatment, chemical treatment and biochemical treatment. Physical treatment method: use physical action to separate suspended solid pollutants in sewage. The methods are: sieve filtration method, sedimentation method, flotation method, air flotation method, filtration method and reverse osmosis method, etc. Chemical treatment method: use the action of chemical reaction to separate and recover the pollutants in various forms (including suspended, dissolved, colloidal, etc.) in sewage and wastewater. The main methods are neutralization, coagulation, electrolysis, redox, stripping, extraction, adsorption, ion exchange and electroosmotic gate. The combination of the above two methods is called physical and chemical treatment. Biochemical treatment method: Utilize microbial metabolism to convert organic pollutants in the state of dissolved colloids in sewage and wastewater into stable and harmless substances. The main methods can be divided into two categories, namely the aerobic method (aerobic oxidation method) using the action of aerobic microorganisms and the oxygen method (anaerobic reduction method) using the action of anaerobic microorganisms. The former is widely used to treat urban sewage and organic production sewage. Among them, there are two kinds of activated sludge method and biofilm method. The latter is mostly used to treat high-concentration organic matter water and sludge generated in the process of sewage treatment. Now it is also used Urban sewage and low concentration organic sewage. In addition to the above two types of biological treatment methods, there are also self-treatment biological treatment methods using ponds and soil treatment. Natural biological treatment methods are further divided into two methods: stabilization pond and construction site treatment. Stabilization pond, also known as 'biological pond', is a sewage pond that has been artificially repaired and equipped with dikes and anti-seepage layers. It mainly relies on natural biological purification functions to purify sewage. A sewage treatment technology. Stabilization ponds are divided into aerobic ponds, anaerobic ponds, precision treatment ponds, aeration ponds, etc.; land treatment is to pour live water on the ground under artificial control conditions, through surface overflow, sewage irrigation, etc. Till net, a kind of natural biological treatment technology of sewage treatment Ten ground treatment note level can be divided into wetland slow infiltration water and sludge, to achieve the purpose of purification and discharge standards.
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