Some sewage treatment plants attribute the cause of exceeding the standard to the serious exceeding of the influent water quality. The author believes that this cannot be a legitimate reason for their illegal sewage discharge. Exceeding the discharge standard just exposes the outstanding problems of the sewage treatment plant in terms of water intake control, treatment capacity, operation and maintenance, daily supervision, and accident emergency response. Combined with the investigation, it was found that the main reasons for the excessive discharge of sewage treatment plants are as follows: First, some enterprises lack environmental protection responsibility and do not strictly control the quality of influent water. The root cause of the excessive water intake of the sewage treatment plant is that the factory has a weak awareness of environmental protection responsibility, lax control of the intake water, and lack of effective preventive measures. Taking the A2/O system as an example, if the influent pH value is too high or too low, it will affect the normal growth of microorganisms; if the COD
concentration is too high, the carbon-nitrogen ratio will be unbalanced; if the ammonia nitrogen concentration is too high, it will inhibit nitrifying bacteria, which will affect the nitrogen removal efficiency. . The factory loosens control on the quality of influent water, leaving room for sewage units to exceed the standard discharge, and greatly increasing the risk of sewage treatment plants exceeding the standard discharge. In order to save operating costs, some factories shut down some production equipment without authorization, resulting in abnormal operation of production facilities; some factories, driven by economic interests, illegally accept high-concentration wastewater and toxic and harmful wastewater, resulting in disordered operation of process facilities and excessive water output become the norm. Second, the types and volume of sewage exceed the design capacity of sewage treatment. After the completion of some urban domestic sewage treatment plants, they have become 'true' industrial sewage treatment plants; some industrial sewage treatment plants accept sewage beyond the scope of the industry, and the composition of sewage is complicated, which makes it difficult for sewage treatment facilities to operate normally and stably. For example, a sewage treatment plant in an industrial park was designed according to the sewage characteristics of the pharmaceutical industry, but after its completion, it received wastewater from many industries such as pharmaceuticals, food, papermaking, and chemical industry, and the total nitrogen and other indicators of the effluent exceeded the standard for a long time. In some places, the preliminary demonstration of the scope of the sewage pipe network was insufficient and unscientific, resulting in overloading of the water volume of the sewage plant. For example, in a certain city, more than 70% of the sewage treatment plants were overloaded. The diversion of rain and sewage in the urban drainage pipe network is not in place, and the mixed flow of rain and sewage during heavy rain may also lead to a surge in water intake. The overload of influent water in the sewage treatment plant directly leads to the shortening of the hydraulic retention time of the sedimentation, biochemical and other sections, and the decline of the sewage treatment efficiency. The third is that some enterprises have a low level of operation and maintenance management and insufficient emergency response capabilities. The management and training systems of some sewage treatment plants are not perfect, professional and technical personnel are lacking, equipment troubleshooting is not timely, there are blind spots in water quality monitoring, the early warning mechanism is not perfect, and the dispatch of abnormal situations is lagging behind. At the same time, problems such as insufficient capacity of emergency facilities, lack of pertinence in emergency plans, and lack of emergency support materials are relatively common in the sewage treatment industry. To solve the problem of sewage treatment plants exceeding the standard, it is necessary to comprehensively implement policies from various aspects, strictly prevent and control, and systematically improve sewage treatment capabilities. First of all, compact the environmental protection responsibility of the sewage discharge unit, and strictly control the water quality of the sewage treatment plant. Sewage treatment plants should take the initiative to assume social responsibilities for environmental protection, strengthen legal awareness of discharge standards, scientifically determine takeover standards, and have the right to refuse to accept sewage that does not meet the takeover standards. Sewage discharge units should take the initiative to assume the responsibility for pollution control, strictly abide by the contract of sewage treatment entrustment, and ensure that the discharge of waste water meets the standards. Ecological and environmental departments should strengthen daily supervision and severely punish malicious and illegal pollutant discharge enterprises. At the same time, sewage treatment plants should improve the preventive measures for excessive water intake, and respond quickly and effectively to excessive water intake. For example, all wastewater from industrial enterprises in a chemical park is transported through open pipes, and 'one enterprise, one pipe, one gate, and one monitoring' is implemented in the water intake area of the sewage treatment plant. If the standard is exceeded, the water inlet system will automatically cut off the water inlet gate valve immediately. This all-round, non-dead-angle water inflow supervision model has fully stimulated the urgency and initiative of enterprises in the park to treat sewage, and guaranteed the water inflow safety of sewage treatment plants. Secondly, speed up the technological transformation of sewage treatment plants and supporting pipe networks to improve sewage treatment capacity. Local governments should speed up the transformation of rainwater and sewage diversion in urban municipal pipe networks to prevent rainwater from impacting sewage treatment plants during heavy rains. Sewage treatment plants with long-term water overload should implement water diversion or capacity expansion as soon as possible. Improve the early warning and scheduling mechanism for the peak water inflow of sewage treatment plants, and timely resolve the risk of water overload. Urban domestic sewage treatment plants should carefully accept industrial wastewater, and prohibit access to poor biochemical, toxic and harmful production wastewater. Evaluate the process, scale, scope, and compliance of urban domestic sewage treatment plants that accept industrial wastewater, strictly control the quality and quantity of acceptable industrial wastewater, and prohibit access to industrial wastewater that does not meet the requirements for acceptance. Implement technological upgrades and transformations for sewage treatment plants that cannot meet the discharge standards stably, improve sewage treatment capacity, and ensure that the effluent meets the standards. Third, enhance the operation and maintenance capabilities of sewage treatment plants and strictly prevent the risk of environmental accidents. Strengthen equipment maintenance, personnel training, informatization construction, operation management, and environmental protection system construction of sewage treatment plants; improve the online monitoring system for the whole process of water quality of 'management unit-sewage pipe network-sewage treatment plant', strengthen the control of the whole process of sewage treatment, and scientifically Regulate operating parameters to achieve precise regulation and efficient and stable operation of sewage treatment facilities. Strengthen the research and judgment of abnormal conditions of water quality and operating parameters of process facilities, improve the early warning mechanism, and formulate corresponding measures by category. Formulate a comprehensive emergency dispatch mechanism for sewage discharge accidents, simultaneously implement hierarchical responses to pollutant discharge units, timely control and reduce the amount of pollutants received, and effectively resolve environmental risks. Improve emergency plans for environmental emergencies and conduct regular drills, improve emergency facilities and sewage COD monitoring instruments, ammonia nitrogen analyzers, emergency chemicals and other support materials, and comprehensively improve the factory's environmental risk emergency response capabilities.
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