The principle of biological filter technology is mainly based on two aspects, one is contact oxidation, and the other is fast water filter. and other functions. The technical principle of biological filter technology is mainly composed of three parts. The first part is oxidative decomposition: it is to put an appropriate amount of small pieces of filter material in the filter, the active biofilm is attached to the filter material, the filter is aerated, and the organisms growing on the filter material are subjected to strong oxidation and decomposition to realize the treatment of sewage. initial purification. The second part is interception: when the sewage passes through the tight filter material, the filter material and the attached biofilm play the role of filtration, which can intercept the suspended solids in the sewage. The third part is backwashing: after the biofilter has been treated for a period of time, the head loss increases, and backwashing is required to remove residual suspended solids and renew the attached biofilm at the same time. Advantages of biofilter technology Biological filter technology has many advantages, which are mainly reflected in the following aspects. The first is better processing capacity: because the particle size of the filter material is relatively small and has a high specific surface area, the biomass attached to the filter material is relatively large. Coupled with the high biofilm activity, it can achieve multiple purifications. In addition to eliminating COD
and BOD, it can also eliminate NH4+ and retain SS. The second is the super impact resistance: the filter material is relatively dense, and the filter material has a high specific surface area. When the amount of sewage is too large, the microorganisms attached to the filter material can multiply rapidly to cope with high-load operating conditions. In addition, the high-strength impact resistance of the biological filter reduces the impact of sewage water quality on the filter. Easy film formation and fast recovery: Studies have shown that when the temperature of the biofilter reaches 10°C to 15°C, complete film formation can be achieved in about two weeks. In many cities where the amount of sewage changes greatly, some filters will be temporarily closed, so that the biofilm attached to the filter material will still remain active, and the biofilm can continue to function as long as the water is passed through and aerated. The filter occupies a small area and requires less capital investment: because the biological reaction and filtration of the biofilter technology are all completed in the filter material, the secondary sedimentation tank is omitted. In addition, the biofilm has a large amount of biomass and has good activity, so the process of sewage treatment is relatively fast, and the residence time of sewage is small, so it occupies a small area and saves money. Simple operation: The main structure of the biofilter is modular, which is very convenient for both early installation and subsequent reconstruction. Not only that, the biological filter can also be built into a closed type, which can reduce the impact of the odor generated during the treatment process on the surrounding environment. The disadvantage of biofilter technology is that pre-treatment is required: because the filter material of biofilter is relatively small and has the function of intercepting SS, when the sewage flow rate is too fast or the SS in sewage is too high, blockage may occur. Continuous cleaning of the filter material will inevitably affect the treatment efficiency and increase the operating cost, so pre-treatment of the sewage is required. Periodic backwashing: In order to wash away the SS in the intercepted sewage of the biofilter, regular backwashing is required. Especially when the backwash process is carried out, because the backwash water directly flows into the primary sedimentation tank, it will cause great harm to it, so although the secondary sedimentation tank is saved, a sludge tank is needed as a buffer. Large water head consumption and loss of filter material: Compared with other sewage treatment technologies, the biological filter technology has a relatively large water head consumption, and the height of wastewater needs to be increased. And when the operation is not normal, it may cause the loss of filter material. Influencing factors of biofilter technology (1) Effect of temperature on biofilter: the key part of biofilter is the biofilm on the filter material, and the normal operation of biofilm is the basis for the continuous and stable operation of the entire biofilter. The microorganisms in the biofilter can automatically form biofilm, but the formation rate will vary with the temperature. When the temperature in the sewage is low, there is no limit to the concentration of organic matter that can be used by organisms, and the growth rate of microorganisms is relatively fast. When the concentration of organic matter decreases, the number of microorganisms can increase slowly. Since the solute reacted by the biofilter belongs to diffusion transfer, the temperature is still the controlling factor of nitrification. (2) The impact of backwashing on the biofilter: After the biofilter has been in operation for a certain period of time, the filter materials, etc. need to be backwashed, so that the retained suspended matter can be removed. The backwash process may damage the biofilm, so the correct and reasonable backwash process is the key to the normal operation of the entire biofilter. From an objective point of view, the backwash process not only needs to ensure the flushing effect, but also needs to consider the biofilm regeneration effect. However, there is no relevant standard or theoretical support for backwashing, and most of them are obtained through experience, so it is difficult to implement.
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