E-mail: michael@shboqu.com   |   Expert in Water Quality Measurement and Water Treatment Project

Talk about the 'digestion' process of wastewater

by:BOQU     2023-03-22
Industrial wastewater refers to wastewater, sewage and waste liquid produced in the process of industrial production, including industrial production materials, intermediate products and products lost with water, and pollutants produced in the production process. Next, let's discuss chemical industrial wastewater. , Printing and dyeing industrial wastewater, paper industry wastewater, dye production wastewater, oily wastewater and other industrial wastewater 'digestion' process! Chemical industry wastewater Chemical industry wastewater mainly comes from: production wastewater discharged from petrochemical industry, coal chemical industry, acid-base industry, fertilizer industry, plastics industry, pharmaceutical industry, dye industry, rubber industry, etc. Primary treatment mainly separates suspended solids, colloids, slick oil or heavy oil in water. Methods such as water quality and quantity adjustment, natural sedimentation, flotation and oil separation can be used. The secondary treatment is mainly to remove biodegradable organic dissolved substances and some colloids, and reduce the biochemical oxygen demand and part of the chemical oxygen demand in the wastewater. Biological treatment is usually used. A considerable amount of COD remains in the biologically treated wastewater, sometimes with high color, smell, and taste, or due to high environmental hygiene standards, it needs to be further purified by tertiary treatment methods. Tertiary treatment is mainly to remove organic pollutants and dissolved inorganic pollutants that are difficult to biodegrade in wastewater. Commonly used methods include activated carbon adsorption and ozone oxidation, and ion exchange and membrane separation techniques can also be used. Different treatment methods can be selected for various chemical industrial wastewater according to different water quality, water volume and the requirements of the treated effluent quality. Printing and dyeing industry wastewater The printing and dyeing industry consumes a lot of water, usually 100-200t of water is consumed per 1 ton of textile printing and dyeing. 80%-90% of it is discharged as printing and dyeing wastewater. Common treatment methods include recycling and harmless treatment. 1. Recycling Physical treatment methods include precipitation and adsorption. The precipitation method mainly removes suspended solids in wastewater; the adsorption method mainly removes dissolved pollutants and decolorization in wastewater. Chemical treatment methods include neutralization, coagulation and oxidation. The neutralization method is to adjust the pH in the wastewater, and it can also reduce the chroma of the wastewater; the coagulation method is to remove the disperse dyes and colloidal substances in the wastewater; the oxidation method is to oxidize the reducing substances in the wastewater, so that the sulfur dyes and vat dyes are precipitated. Papermaking industry wastewater Papermaking wastewater mainly comes from the two production processes of pulping and papermaking in the papermaking industry. Pulping is to separate the fibers in the plant raw materials, make a slurry, and then bleach it; papermaking is to dilute the slurry , forming, pressing and drying to make paper. Both processes discharge large volumes of wastewater. The wastewater produced by pulping is the most polluted. The wastewater discharged during pulp washing is dark brown, which is called black water. The concentration of pollutants in black water is very high, BOD is as high as 5-40g/L, and it contains a lot of fibers, inorganic salts and pigments. The wastewater discharged from the bleaching process also contains a large amount of acid and alkali substances. The waste water discharged from the paper machine is called white water, which contains a lot of fibers and fillers and sizing materials added during the production process. The treatment of paper industry wastewater should focus on increasing the recycling water rate, reducing water consumption and wastewater discharge, and actively exploring various reliable, economical and fully utilizing useful resources in wastewater treatment methods. For example, the flotation method can recover fibrous solid matter in white water, the recovery rate can reach 95%, and the clarified water can be reused; the combustion method can recover sodium hydroxide, sodium sulfide, sodium sulfate and other sodium salts combined with organic matter in black water. Neutralization method can adjust the pH value of wastewater; coagulation sedimentation or flotation method can remove suspended solids in wastewater; chemical precipitation method can decolorize; biological treatment method can remove BOD, which is more effective for kraft paper wastewater; wet oxidation method is more effective in treating sulfurous acid pulp wastewater success. In addition, there are also treatment methods such as reverse osmosis, ultrafiltration, and electrodialysis at home and abroad. Oily wastewater Oily wastewater mainly comes from petroleum, petrochemical, steel, coking, gas generation stations, mechanical processing and other industrial sectors. Oily pollutants in wastewater, except for heavy tar whose relative density is above 1.1, the rest of the relative density is less than 1 .Oil substances usually exist in three states in wastewater. One of the methods is to pay attention to reducing the emulsification of oil in the wastewater during the production process; the second is to minimize the number of times the wastewater is lifted by the pump during the treatment process so as not to increase the degree of emulsification. Treatment methods usually adopt air flotation and demulsification.
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