E-mail: michael@shboqu.com   |   Expert in Water Quality Measurement and Water Treatment Project

The improvement of rural sewage treatment capacity needs to grasp these two points

by:BOQU     2023-03-20
A large part of the reason why rural domestic sewage has attracted so much attention is that it is quite different from urban sewage treatment in terms of infrastructure conditions, economic basic conditions, or operation and maintenance conditions. This difference can be specifically reflected in various aspects such as process selection, operating funds, management and maintenance, and supervision mechanisms. Of course, this basically constitutes a practical problem that my country's rural sewage treatment needs to face. Experts said that rural sewage treatment still has weaknesses such as insufficient investment, poor technical applicability, insufficient regulatory capacity and level, and imperfect management and protection mechanisms. Previously, the contradiction of 'bathing in the sun' in sewage treatment facilities was a typical manifestation. The time is tight and the task is heavy. What aspects should the rural sewage treatment capacity be improved rapidly? 1. If the governance model can be dealt with in a unified manner, it should be dealt with in a unified way. If it cannot be dealt with in a unified way, a suitable decentralized treatment plan should also be selected, so as to find a balance between economic costs and ecological benefits. After a series of exploration and reference, the current rural sewage treatment model in my country is generally divided into two forms: unified and decentralized. The unified treatment of rural sewage is suitable for areas close to towns or relatively concentrated villages. It is a more efficient choice to connect to the municipal pipe network or to build a unified sewage treatment plant. Good treatment effect, low economic cost and easy maintenance are the basic advantages of the unified treatment mode. Relatively speaking, other rural areas need to adopt a decentralized treatment model for rural households that integrates the treatment of rural domestic sewage and toilet revolution. Under the double 'buff' addition of comprehensive improvement of rural living environment and toilet revolution, it is easier to promote decentralized sewage treatment solutions in rural areas than before. Of course, the cost is relatively higher, especially self-built sewage treatment facilities, such as household biogas digesters. At present, the technical difficulties that the research community needs to overcome include rural decentralized sewage treatment technology with high cost performance and local operation and maintenance costs. A few days ago, the water special research topic Rural Distributed Sewage Treatment Integrated Technology announced the research results, designed and developed two types of small integrated sewage treatment devices, and integrated non-(micro) dynamic oxygenation and anaerobic treatment for various problems in rural sewage treatment. The filter bed process can better reduce the aeration cost of the aerobic unit and reduce the burden of operation and management in the later stage of rural sewage treatment. 2. Technical process Obviously, in addition to the scientific choice of governance model, breakthroughs in technical research bottlenecks are also the path to rapidly improve the level of rural sewage treatment. In fact, the option of adapting measures to local conditions is also very important. To improve the effluent standard of rural sewage treatment, or the treatment efficiency can also be based on existing technologies and consider combined processes. Anaerobic hydrolysis technology, constructed wetland technology, ecological ditch technology, MBR water treatment technology, underground infiltration composite technology, and microbial filter bed technology are currently several common and important technical options. Generally speaking, at present, there are many branches of rural sewage treatment technology in my country to choose from, and the process is relatively mature. If 'tailoring' can be carried out in a more scientific way, it will be more conducive to making up for shortcomings in rural sewage treatment.
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