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The Necessity of Medical Wastewater Prevention and Control

by:BOQU     2023-03-30
Water is fundamental to maintain a virtuous cycle of the ecosystem. With the rapid development of my country's economy, people's living standards and economic strength have improved, and the emphasis on and strengthening of environmental protection work has been expected. It has become an urgent task to establish a sound sustainable development system for the wastewater treatment industry. Medical wastewater is one of the wastewater with large daily discharge volume and great potential pathogenic hazards. Medical wastewater contains a variety of germs, viruses and parasites. If this wastewater is discharged directly without treatment, its direct and potential hazards are obvious. Therefore, it is very necessary to treat medical wastewater. Targets of Medical Wastewater Control Pathogenic microorganisms in medical wastewater mainly include four types: pathogenic bacteria, enteroviruses, worm eggs and protozoa. Specifically, it includes Salmonella Shigella, Vibrio cholerae, pathogenic Escherichia coli, infectious hepatitis virus, poliovirus, Coxsackie virus, roundworm eggs, hookworm eggs, schistosome eggs, and amoeba. The total number of bacteria in most medical wastewater in my country reaches several million to tens of millions per milliliter, and the number of coliform bacteria per milliliter of waste water is mostly more than 200,000, and the detection rate of intestinal pathogenic bacteria reaches 30% to 100%. Hospitals discharge hundreds of tons of medical wastewater containing infectious pathogenic bacteria every day. If the wastewater is not treated in time, it will enter the wastewater treatment plant through municipal wastewater pipelines, resulting in a decline in the quality of the treated water and affecting people's health. And for the potential source of infection of these dangerous multiple diseases, only through waste water treatment, detect from waste water, just can be discovered and stopped. Prevention and treatment of medical wastewater pollution is the primary goal of medical wastewater control. Specifically, it is necessary to make the discharge of medical wastewater meet the standards stipulated by the state. Medical wastewater treatment method Chlorination treatment of hospital wastewater Chlorine, as a chemical agent for chlorination and disinfection, has been used in wastewater treatment since the 19th century and has a history of more than 100 years. Chlorination treatment is divided into sodium hypochlorite method, liquid lv method and chlorine dioxide method according to the difference of chloride addition. (1) Sodium hypochlorite method. Sodium hypochlorite is a common chemical reagent, which is convenient for transportation, storage and purchase. Sodium hypochlorite dissolves in water to produce hypochlorite ions, which can be used for disinfection and sterilization, but it is unstable, easy to decompose when exposed to light, and damp, and its disinfection ability is very weak. (2) Liquid lv method. Liquid lv can quickly produce hypochlorite ions in water. This method has been widely used in hospital sewage disinfection. The available chlorine content in liquid lv is 5-10 times higher than that of sodium hypochlorite solution, which has strong disinfection ability and low price. Since chlorine gas is a strong irritating and toxic gas, special storage equipment should be used for storage. (3) Chlorine dioxide method. Chlorine dioxide is a strong oxidizing agent that can kill bacteria, propagules, fungi and viruses. Relevant studies have shown that after chlorine dioxide is dissolved in water, 50%-7o% will be converted into hypochlorite ions and chlorite ions, which will damage red blood cells, interfere with the body's absorption of iodine, and increase blood cholesterol. . Therefore, the first two methods are generally used to treat hospital sewage at present. Ozone disinfection treatment of hospital wastewater Ozone disinfection is widely used in urban water supply and urban wastewater disinfection. Ozone disinfection overcomes the dangers of chlorine during transportation, storage and handling. Its disinfection contact time is short and can improve the quality of waste water. It is an excellent disinfectant. Ozone disinfection is also widely used in the food industry and pharmaceutical industry. Ozone is used in the disinfection of hospital wastewater, which can effectively kill coliform bacteria, polio and other viruses. Ozone disinfection is not affected by ammonia nitrogen content and pH value in wastewater. Ozone must also be produced on-site, and there are two types of preparations: air as the gas source and oxygen as the gas source to prepare ozone. According to the amount of ozone generated, its manufacturing cost is also different. Generally speaking, the price of ozone generator is relatively expensive. Since the current discharge of hospital wastewater is specified in the GBJ48-83 standard, no enteric pathogenic bacteria and Mycobacterium tuberculosis can be detected in the wastewater discharged by the hospital, and the total number of coliforms should not exceed 500 per liter. Or when chlorination is used for disinfection, the contact time and the residual chlorine content in the effluent of the contact pool are used as the standard. In addition, the price of ozone disinfection is more expensive than that of chlorination. Through the above content, online residual chlorine detector can be selected for medical wastewater monitoring. Compared with manual sampling, online residual chlorine monitoring is safer and more reliable.
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