Surface water, which is stored in the earth's crust, is the main source of water in people's lives. As far as the current situation is concerned, its environmental problems are becoming more and more obvious, making its surface water environment worse and worse, which has a great impact on our life and production. In this chapter, we will learn the details of surface water monitoring. Details are as follows! 1. Due to the problem of river width and river depth, the number of vertical lines and the number of layers of a section need to be calculated and determined according to the actual river width and river depth. With seasonal changes, the width and depth of rivers or lakes will change significantly. If the sampling is only rigidly based on the plan without actual survey, the data cannot reflect the actual situation and the reference will be reduced. 2. The problem of petroleum sampling volume Petroleum sampling is indeed the focus and difficulty of testing the sampling technology, and it is also the item with many problems found on site. Unreasonable design of the sampler and difficult operation often occur. Full, re-sampling without changing the sampling bottle, these phenomena will affect the representativeness of the data. 3. Problems of water collection, aeration and settlement When using the emptying type water collector, the water sample is poured from the upper mouth, the dust is ignored during the settlement, the water outlet is on the water surface when the BOD
5 is filled after the settlement, and there is no fixed measure at the inlet of the siphon. Improper behavior introduces bias into the data. Copper, lead, zinc, cadmium, iron, and manganese refer to the dissolved content. After sampling, they must be filtered with a 0.45 micron microporous membrane immediately after sampling. Some sampling personnel are not familiar with this regulation, and it is as natural as other routine items. Settling for 30 minutes before filtering will affect the accuracy of the data. 4. Problems with the placement of thermometers Some refrigerator thermometers are placed close to the ice cubes, which cannot reflect the temperature of places with poor thermal insulation performance, resulting in temperature distortion and affecting the refrigeration effect. 5. Questions about filling in the records. Some sampling personnel think that the data has been uploaded in the system, and there is no need to fill in the on-site records. Some analysis stations also have records that are not filled in time or filled in irregularly. The lack of and irregular filling in these records will cause Affect the traceability of water quality online monitoring data. 6. Parallel sample packaging problem When collecting parallel samples on site, equal volumes should be divided into two parts in turn, and preservatives should be added separately. It is forbidden to pack another sample after filling one sample. 7. Problems reported in conductivity data The conductivity changes with the temperature. For every 1°C increase in temperature, the conductivity increases by about 2%. Usually, 25°C is specified as the standard temperature for measuring conductivity. When the test equipment does not have a temperature correction function, it is necessary to correct the measured value to the value at 25°C; if the equipment has a temperature correction function, it is necessary to verify whether this function is turned on.
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